The Strategies For Teaching Of ADHD Students At Home

According to the Learning Disabilities Association of America Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is not considered a learning disability.  But the reality is that many students who have ADD/ADHD have other associated issues which do hinder their ability to learn according to the traditional education plan that exists in most public schools.  Even without additional learning disabilities students with ADD/ADHD and their teachers often need adaptive strategies to make learning less difficult.

Three of the issues that teachers, and this includes homeschooling parents/teachers, have to deal with in students with ADD/ADHD are:

Distractibility.  Students with ADHD find it difficult to concentrate on any one subject for extended periods of time.  One way parents/teachers can deal with this is to keep lessons short.  Help the student to break down larger tasks into a series of smaller tasks.  Math is one of those large tasks that lends itself to being divided into more manageable pieces.  Instead of instructing the student to “do their math” it would benefit both the teacher and the student to have a short term goal of completing the instructional portion of the math assignment then taking a break.  After a short break allow the student to refocus and complete a small number of math problems.

In a homeschooling environment it is possible to control the environment for the student.  There are not 30 other students who contribute to the distraction.  Noise can be controlled in the home.  Additionally, homeschooling is very flexible and this helps homeschooled ADHD students spend more time, or less, on a subject depending on their needs.

Hyperactivity.  ADHD students sometimes seem like they are “driven” to be in constant motion.  This can be difficult to deal with in a traditional classroom setting.  For the home educator it is easier because the student’s motion does not disturb anyone else. If the student needs to hop around the room on one foot while reciting the multiplication tables then allow it.  Sometimes the act of moving and learning at the same time can be a very useful tool because it allows the student to both burn off excess energy and commit things to memory.

There are several techniques that can be used to help your ADHD student drain off excess energy.  One family allowed their student to use an exercise ball as a seat instead of a chair.  The student was allowed to gently bounce on the ball, or rock back and forth on it.  Even when sitting relatively still the student still needed to make minor balance adjustments and that allowed him to use some of the excess energy.

Another thing to do is to keep the student’s hands busy.  Conventional wisdom says that the student is not paying attention if she is doodling or using modeling clay but the reality is that ADHD students seem to be able to do more than one thing at a time, and even benefit from being allowed to do more than one thing at a time.

Easily Frustrated.  ADHD students seem to become easily frustrated.  They often do not like repetitive lessons, reading lessons, or lessons that require a lot of writing.  Remember that ADHD is not considered a specific learning disability.  However, ADHD students do tend to learn differently.  Their brains tend to process things very quickly and so repetitive lessons seem like a waste of time.  Reading requires doing only one thing at a time (reading) and comprehension tends to be reduced if the student is distracted.  As for the ADHD student disliking writing, many ADHD students have poor handwriting and are frustrated by the speed at which ideas in their heads can be translated to paper.

Part of the way to get around this frustration is to allow the student to use adaptive technologies, and these can be easily accommodated in a homeschool environment.  Instead of having the student actually read a book allow her to listen to an audio book.  This allows the student to focus on the story with their ears while doing something else with their hands, or jumping up and down.  Teach keyboarding skills early because it is easier for a student to get the ideas out of their heads and onto paper if they can process that information at the speed of typing as opposed to writing.

As for repetitive lessons such as spelling, instead of having the student practice spelling words all week and take a test at the end of the week, why not let the student take the test first?  Then have the student work only on the words that he was unable to spell.  It makes for less repetition, and allows the student to process the lessons in shorter bursts.

Finally, allow students to work at a pace that is adapted for their learning abilities rather than trying to make the student adapt to traditional lesson plans.  Use technology where possible.  Online curricula allow the student to have some control over the rate at which information is presented.  Homeschooling ADHD students works well because it allows for learning to occur on their terms instead of trying to make the ADHD student adapt to an education model that is a poor fit for them.

Linda is a writer and homeschooling parent of one ADHD child.  They use an online core curriculum, Time4Learning, listen to a lot of audio books, and use educational games at Learning Games for Kids to improve keyboarding skills.

The Reasons Why Sports Management Needs Unique Educational Models

While it may not seem obvious, sports management degrees focus less on athletics and more on finance, management, marketing, and law—as they pertain to the sporting industry.  Students graduate with the abilities to manage amateur, collegiate, and professional organizations and sports professionals while capitalizing on sports-related opportunities.  While many students choose sports management as undergraduates, it’s not uncommon to see mid-career business professionals transition to advanced sports management degrees—they’re interesting and lucrative.

The keys to success?  A positive attitude.  Self-reliance.  A willingness to push forward.  The Johan Cruyff Institutehas it all.  According to Jordi Cruyff, the late Johan Cruyff’s son, former footballer, and current manager for Maccabi Tel Aviv, “My father always told me that when I had doubts about a certain situation, to follow my intuition and do what I thought was humanly correct and professionally correct.  I always follow that advice.”

What does the Johan Cruyff Institute have that other sports management programs don’t?  A unique, student-centered model that pushes sports management students as hard as any professional athlete.  A combination of passion and practicality, an understanding of the world, a global network, and the blood, sweat, and tears to make it happen.

1. Passion

Passion for sports comes first, above all else.  That’s why the Johan Cruyff Institute requires that its students care deeply about sports—many of the students are athletes themselves.   The Johan Cruyff Institute offers students the unique opportunity to translate passion for a sport into growth, development, and business acumen. According to Johan Cruyff, the founder of the Institute, “My vision on sport management is quite simple. I think people with a passion for sport are the best to lead sport organizations.”  Without it, why focus on sports?  Those who love the sport do well by their charges.

2. Practicality

At the heart of the Johan Cruyff Institute’s educational model: learning by doing.  The Institute offers a Corporate Internship Program that places students at the heart of the sports industry.  Students access the behind-the-scenes work of sports management, and experience the reality of what it means to management a sports team.  Students gain the skills necessary to compete in tight job markets—adapted to their passions, interests, skills, and needs.  Additionally, students have the opportunities to learn from and interact with faculty directly from the sports industry.

3. Global Awareness

Sporting is international—different cultures approach sports management in different ways.  The Johan Cruyff Institute prepares students for the transient life of sports management professionals by offering students opportunities that maximize their understanding of cultural differences in the sporting world.  The Johan Cruyff Institute prepares students for international endeavors by offering several campuses in different cities around the world.  On-campus and blended programs in the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Mexico, and Peru, combined with the flexibility of online courses make the Johan Cruyff Institute unique.  Students can combine their studies and travel to different cities and countries to maximize their learning—and their capacity to understand.

4. Network 

It’s all about connections.  The Johan Cruyff Institute mediates the relationships between potential applicants and the sports management industry.  International sports management companies hold the institute in high regard and look to its graduates often, posting jobs with career services.  By studying at the John Cruyff Institute, students experience a clear advantage in the sports management industry: they have worked with professionals in the field, interned with top-tier sports management businesses, and can bring their passion and know-how to the industry with dignity and grace—just like the most accomplished athletes.

Athletes know that practice makes perfect, but even the most talented athletes need positive, driven leaders to turn skill into success. The Johan Cruyff Institute educates the next generation of Leaders in Sports Management. A sports management degree from the Johan Cruyff Institute offers any aspiring sports management professional the practice and the focus needed to be a successful and inspiring leader. The industry as seamless as the sport.  The team as graceful as the athlete. The unfailing positivity that allows your team to smile and say, “Good game,” whatever the outcome.  Find it at the Johan Cruyff Institute.  You won’t be disappointed.

Is Your Child Learning Enough

One of the big questions most new homeschoolers ask is, “How will I know if my child is learning?”

When a child is in public school he or she is constantly tested. Each week there are spelling tests, there are chapter tests on a regular basis, and in many states there is standardized testing. Many parents of public school students decide that if the grades coming home on test papers and report cards are good, then their child must be learning.

When students are pulled from a traditional school setting and placed in homeschooling it is sometimes difficult for the parent to know if the student is actually learning enough to keep up with their grade peers. A big problem is that homeschool students tend to not be tested as often as public school students. But is it really a problem and is testing the only way to know if a student is learning enough?

How Long?

Sometimes it is difficult to tell if a child is learning enough in homeschool because homeschooling generally takes much less time than traditional education.   Homeschooled children generally do not spend as much time on a particular topic as traditionally educated students because they are neither ahead nor behind their classmates. Part of the reason for this is that your homeschooled child is receiving one-on-one attention. They do not have to wait for others to catch up, nor are they holding up other students back if they need to spend more time on a topic. If the student understands the topic then he or she can move on right away.

Traditional education is set up for a traditional school year, in many states that is approximately 180 school days. That is, for each subject an hour of instruction per day for 180 days, or 180 hours per subject. Now, consider this question: Is a public school hour of instruction really an hour? Students must move from class to class, spending time talking to peers, going to lockers, and moving between classrooms and even buildings. A traditional school hour of education might be as short as 45 minutes by the time moving, getting settled, and ready to actually learn are taken into account.

Homeschoolers can take almost all of that transition time out of their day. The commute from math at the kitchen table to history on the sofa takes considerably less time than moving from one end of a building to another and climbing a flight of steps or two.  When was the last time you heard of a traditionally educated student actually finishing a complete textbook in a year?  It is safe to say that a homeschooled student can probably cover more material in a school day than traditional educated students can. It is not unusual for a homeschooled student to complete the entire course in a homeschool curriculum.

Testing?

Homeschooled students generally do not take as many tests as public school students do. Consequently, less time is spent teaching “to the test”. Teaching to the test limits a student’s exploration of a subject by limiting them to the material that will be tested. Testing is not necessarily a true measure of understanding of a topic.

In fact, standardized tests can be detrimental to students who are from different backgrounds and upbringings. Consider, for example, a standardized test question that asks reasons for the Civil War. Since the Civil War is viewed differently by different ethnicities, as well as different locations, a question designed to show understanding of the reasons behind the war might not realistically test a student’s knowledge.

Another problem with standardized testing is that some students are very test savvy, understanding how to take tests well even if they do not understand the subject matter. Other students are poor test takers and do not do well under the pressures of timed tests. A low score by a poor test taker is not a true measure of their knowledge or learning ability, only their testing abilities.

You’ll know!

It sounds cheesy to say that you will know if your child is learning but the reality is that you will know if your child is learning. You can see it on their faces, you can tell by their attitude, and you will see forward progress.

If your student begins their homeschool day ready to go to school, moves quickly through their assignments, and is hungry for more information, it is safe to say that the student is learning.

If your student can not only give you the instructed materials on a multiple choice test, but can hold a conversation about the material you will know they understand the material. When a student can play the part of the teacher, either giving a speech, or teaching other children in a subject, then that student will have sufficient knowledge of a subject to move on to new material.

Finally, as the parent as well as the teacher it is possible to see the student in all stages of learning. You will not have to depend on a report card, or a test score. You will see your student work through the instructional material, watch them answer questions, and be able to judge for yourself if your student is actually learning.

Here The Four Top Emerging Fields for Post-Graduate Studies

1. Biostatistics

A master’s in biostatistics will earn you a median salary of about $113,400, according to Fortune, with at least a 20 percent projected job growth by 2022.

If those statistics aren’t enough to motivate you, how about this: biostatisticians help save the world.  Your ability to make lasting, positive changes in public health, clinical medicine, genomics, health economics—and the raw field of mathematics is essentially limitless.  So: if you have the science and math savvy, want to save the world, and live a pretty comfortable life on top of that, consider biostatistics.

Learn more about biostatistics and biotechnology.

2. Human-Computer Interaction and Artificial Intelligence

Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the study of how people interface with computers.  From algorithm science to information science, psychology to anthropology, you could work on anything from projects related to design guidelines for all types of software to academic research to figuring out the best interface for human-robot interaction.  With humans interacting with mobile and touch devices, you can also delve into the intricacies of human-computer interface.

Learn more about earning a master’s in AI or HCI.

3. Homeland Security and Cyber Criminality

If current world events don’t have your head spinning, imagine how experts in homeland security and cyber criminality feel.  Cybercrime is relatively new specialty—and one that will continue to see nearly exponential growth in the coming years.  Cybercrimes involve computers, networks, and the intent to harm individuals, systems, national security, and financial markets.  These crimes cover the spectrum of identity theft to election hacking.  Sounds relevant, doesn’t it?

If you opt to study Homeland Security, you can bet that cyber warfare will be an intrinsic part of your training.  The graduate program in Homeland Security at San Diego State University, for example, focuses on prevention, deterrence, and response to instances of terror and espionage on national and international levels.  A cornerstone of their program?  Cyber security.

Learn more about earning your master’s in cyber security.

4. Urban Studies

A focus on making cities sustainable place to live and work—environmentally, socially, economically, politically, and financially—is the axis on which urban studies turns.  There’s a need for on-the-ground specialists—and researchers who can help inform decisions for urban spaces.  What do urban communities of the future need?  What do they look like—and how can they evolve?  How do they accommodate human needs—and the needs of their unique ecosystems?

Learn more about earning your master’s in urban studies.

What do these fields have in common?  Technology.  Brilliance.  A common desire to improve lives—no matter who you are or where you live.   If you don’t have the skills, interests, or abilities in these fields, do something that will help support them.  Learn to code.  Invent an app.  Learn how to use the technologies that these fields will require.  Innovate.  Educate yourself.  The possibilities are limitless.

First Amendment Support For Climbing Among High School Students

Support among American high school students for the First Amendment is stronger today than it has been in the last 12 years, according to the latest in a series of large nationwide surveys of the nation’s rising voters.

Some 91 percent of high school students say they believe that individuals should be allowed to express unpopular opinions, according to a Knight Foundation survey of nearly 12,000 students conducted last year. The survey is the sixth in a series, the first of which was carried out in 2004, when 83 percent supported such rights.

“What we’ve seen since 2004 is a slow but steady increase in support,” said Kenneth Dautrich, the study’s lead author and the president of the Stats Group, a statistical and data services firm.

Here’s a look at some of the top findings.

Support, but with limits

High school students may broadly back the First Amendment, but not without limits: Their support is tempered depending on the kind of speech and where it’s delivered.

“While support for the First Amendment as a general concept has never been higher, the devil’s in the details,” said Jonathan Sotsky, director of strategy and assessment for the Knight Foundation.

Ninety-one percent of the students may support the right to express unpopular opinions in general, but only half as many — 45 percent — support that right when the speech in question is offensive to others and made in public. Bullying speech enjoys slightly less backing, and students are even less supportive of either kind of speech when it’s delivered on social media.

Students trust individuals over institutions

Many students find little sacred in professional reporting: More than half put as much or more trust in photos, videos and accounts shared by individuals online than in traditional news sources. The 726 teachers surveyed, however, were far more skeptical of the online postings.

Students may have faith in firsthand accounts shared online, but they are still generally wary of the news they see there. Eighty-two percent said they had “some” or “a lot” of trust in the information found in newspapers, compared with 77 percent for television news and 70 percent for news websites. Just 49 percent reported similar levels of trust in news shared on social media.

Students get their news on mobile devices

The survey results suggest that high school students and adults differ greatly in how they consume news.

Students are almost twice as likely as adults to “often” use mobile devices for news and nearly three times as likely to report “often” getting news from social media. Adults are much more likely to report “often” getting news from local TV and newspapers.

They are less concerned with privacy

Students are far less concerned about their privacy on the internet than adults, according to the survey. But that is changing: In 2016, 76 percent were somewhat or very concerned about privacy online, compared with 70 percent two years earlier.

The Benefits of Continuing Education

Do you have a dead end job where there are few, if any, opportunities for promotion? If this describes you, there are still opportunities to make a career transition to pursue the job you’ve always wanted. To make a career change, you might have to obtain more education. Whether you enjoy learning or want a higher paying job, continuing education can be pursued at anytime during one’s working life.

In fact, continuing education can open up previously closed doors or lead to better job opportunities. Continuing education usually refers to college courses or other vocational training obtained by older adults or working professionals.

This has been corroborated by research, which finds that students in continuing education programs are usually older adults or working professionals.

Rising Numbers

According to the U.S. Department of Education’s National Center for Education Statistics, demand for continuing education for adults aged 35 or older should grow by 7 percent until 2016.

Economic conditions are one of the main reasons driving demand for continuing education, and many people enroll in continuing education programs during recessions. Likewise, during recessions, many workers seek to improve skills to remain hired or find new job opportunities.

The following benefits can be derived from obtaining more education:

  • Those with jobs who obtain graduate degrees improve promotion opportunities and can qualify for higher wages. It is often required to complete specialized training to quality for certain jobs, such as management or administration positions.
  • Obtaining additional education can also increase one’s marketability in the job market.
  • Continuing education is the way to develop new skills or knowledge necessary for a career transition.
  • Continuing education is a great way to learn about subjects of personal interest. Courses taken do not necessarily have to be related to an individual’s job.
  • Obtaining more education can improve one’s image in family or social circles.
  • Obtaining additional education or completing a college program can enhance self-image and have positive effects on other aspects of a person’s life.

Some people enroll in college because they love learning, while some do so to qualify for certain jobs. However, many people feel unable to re-enroll in college since they must keep their full-time jobs. Working professionals wanting to keep their jobs but obtain more education can enroll in online continuing education programs.

People can return to school at any age. In fact, many older adults and working professionals are taking advantage of the opportunities provided by returning to college or earning additional degrees.

Information For You How to Manage a 529 Plan for Your Child’s Education

Saving money in a 529 plan offers families a way to put cash away for college and save on taxes as well. But if your child is entering high school soon, it’s time to double-check the allocation of your investments.

Funds in state-sponsored 529 accounts, typically invested in mutual funds, grow tax-free. When you take the money out, funds aren’t taxed as long as the money is spent on eligible education costs, including tuition, room and board and books. Total investment in 529 plans reached $253 billion in 2015, according to the College Savings Plans Network.

Investments in 529 plans generally have a shorter window of time to grow than money in a retirement account does. And once a child enters high school, college is just four years away. A steep drop in the market could leave you short of funds when your child heads to campus — so scaling back high-risk investments is often a good idea, unless you have other funds available to pay for college.

“If all your college money is in the 529,” said Kim Lankford, an editor atKiplinger who writes about the plans, “you should be more conservative.

To help avoid that situation, most 529 plans offer age- and risk-based investment options, designed to automatically shift funds to more conservative investments as the child grows. Plans typically begin with a majority of funds in stocks, then shrink the allocation over time and add more bonds.

Still, some advisers suggest that families — even those using age-based portfolios — double-check the specifics of their 529 holdings as college nears. The mix of investments and the shift in allocation, sometimes called a glide path, vary greatly by plan.

“I’d want to look under the hood and make sure it makes sense for my particular circumstances,” said Scott Clemons, chief investment strategist with Brown Brothers Harriman.

P. J. Wallin, a financial planner at Atlas Financial in Richmond, Va., said that while age-based portfolios shift more money into bonds over time, fixed income doesn’t always equal “safe.”

For instance, Mr. Wallin said, the 2021 age-based portfolio in Virginia’s 529 inVest plan now has 70 percent in fixed-income investments. But with about 36 percent in “stable market” bonds, the mix also includes 5 percent in high-yield bonds and 10 percent in emerging market bonds, he said, which may be riskier than some investors want with college four years away.

Mr. Wallin generally advises clients to move half of their holdings into a money-market fund within the 529 plan when the child enters high school, and even as early as the eighth grade. “I like to put it in cash,” he said.

The point of a 529 plan, he noted, is that growth is tax-free — but it’s risky to seek a lot more growth during the high school years. “The last thing we want is to stretch for an extra $5,000 of appreciation,” he said, but lose 20 percent in a market downturn.

Christopher Parr, a financial planner in Columbia, Md., recalled that his daughter’s 529 fund lost a year of savings when the market dropped in 2008. “You better understand what’s under there,” he said.

Steve Stanganelli, a financial planner in Amesbury, Mass., suggests that families consider moving funds for at least the coming year’s college costs into cash. Connecticut’s 529 plan, he said, generally offers a high-yield money-market option. And Ms. Lankford notes that some 529 plans even offer savings accounts insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as an option.

By moving to safety, families may miss out on market gains. Barry Korb, a financial adviser in Potomac, Md., said a couple came to see him a year ago, having saved the equivalent of four years of tuition at a private college in a 529 plan. The child was starting school in six months — and 90 percent of the money was in equities.

On Mr. Korb’s advice, they agreed to shift most of the funds to short-term fixed investments. Even though in retrospect the couple would have been fine if they had left the money in stock over the past year, Mr. Korb is firm that money needed within five years shouldn’t be in the market. “I do not regret my advice,” he said.

Here are some questions and answers about 529 savings plans:

Can I deduct contributions to a 529 plan?

Contributions are not deductible on your federal tax return. But many states offer a deduction on your state tax return.

How many times can I change my 529 investment allocations?

You can change them twice a year.

What if my child doesn’t go to college?

The College Savings Plans Network says that you can change the plan’s beneficiary to another family member, and they can use the funds for college. If you withdraw the money for noneducational purposes, the earnings — but not your contributions — will be subject to income tax, plus a 10 percent federal penalty. Some plans may charge extra fees or penalties.

Tips To Be a Successful Adult Student

High school and adult level education programs differ significantly. As a result, different types of skills and qualities are required to succeed as an adult student.

The primary difference between high school and adult education programs aren’t the programs themselves, it’s the students. High school students don’t typically have full-time jobs or families to support–adults do. Adult students must juggle the responsibilities of working, attending to family and other duties, while trying to complete their degree, certificate or diploma.

There is also a different set of expectations for adolescents and adults. Since adolescents are still maturing, teachers are more willing to accept excuses and poor effort, but teachers in adult education programs are less likely to accept excuses and will expect a higher level dedication and performance from their students. They will work with students needs, but will not tolerate laziness or apathy.

Adults enrolling in adult education programs should always maintain a positive attitude and be willing to put in the work necessary to succeed. Since adults usually have work, family and other responsibilities, teachers in adult education programs will assume their students are mature, hard workers and up to the task. Notwithstanding, even for mature dedicated adults, school can be challenging.

The following are a few proven strategies that will help you succeed as an adult students enrolled in an adult education program:

Set Realistic Goals

Goal setting typically isn’t high up on the list of priorities for most high school age students, but for adult students, who want to be successful–while maintaining some sense of sanity–it’s an imperative. Adults students have to juggle so many different responsibilities that compete for their time and attention outside of school that setting goals becomes a very important aspect of academic success. Even for responsible adults, it’s easy to get behind or arrive at the end of the semester unprepared if they don’t set realistic, achievable goals at the beginning of the semester and review their goals on a regular basis. Teachers and professors can help their students brainstorm goals, but ultimately it’s the students’ responsibility to develop goals and follow through with them. It’s very difficult to complete a demanding adult education or college program without setting and following through with goals. We recommend setting daily, weekly and monthly goals. Daily goals should be oriented toward accomplishing weekly goals, weekly goals should be oriented toward accomplishing monthly goals, and monthly goals to longer-term goals.

Perserverance

Most adults returning to college or enrolling for the first time will likely take classes much more difficult than those they’ve taken in the past or during high school. They’ll be tested in tough courses and will frequently be overwhelmed with what they’re required to learn–and quickly they must learn it. Moreover, students must deal with a myriad challenges outside the classroom, such as relationship, family or work problems. Often, school and non-school related stress can make quitting seem very appealing to adult students. However, you must work through challenges and persevere until you reach your education goals. If you have clearly defined goals and self-confidence, you can find the drive to work through challenging times and complete your degree or diploma.

Self-Belief

It’s been eight years since you graduated from high school. You have three kids, a wife and 9 to 5 job as an office manager. The last math class you took was pre-algebra, you barely passed high school chemistry and it feels like it’s been an eternity since you read an actual text book. You feel like you need to get a college degree but are wondering if you’re really up to it. Adults returning to school after a long absence need to be confident in their abilities in order to succeed. The need to develop an “I can do this!” attitude. This is partly due to the fact that, unlike high school, you are not forced to attend, complete your assignments or even graduate. To succeed, you must be confident, dedicated and have a strong work ethic. You must also have the ability and determination to solve problems when you encounter them and keep on going. If you do not have confidence in your problem solving skills, are unsure of yourself or can’t really says you’re going to follow through to the end, you can become stressed and drop out.

Keep an Open Mind

It’s important to be open-minded when returning to college. You’re going to make mistakes, and no matter your work experience, your professors will be more knowledgeable about the subjects they teach than you will be. Therefore, you must be very attentive in class and closely follow test and project instructions. Be prepared to make mistakes, and apply the lessons you learn to become a better student.

Avoid Procrastination

If possible, avoid procrastinating homework assignments and putting off studying. This can be a challenge since most adults have family and work responsibilities on top of their education. Unlike high school, it’s often not possible to score well on a college level test if you don’t start studying until the night before. Since college and adult education courses catering to adults usually only meet once or twice a week, you are expected to be studying or completing assignments the rest of the week during your time off. Many working adult students must make sacrifices, and reassess their priorities, in order to meet their school obligations, or they’ll end up procrastinating until it’s too late. Students are usually expected to spend at least an hour studying outside of for each hour spent in class. However, to learn difficult concepts, more time outside study time may be necessary.

Qualities of Success

In order to be successful students, adults returning to pursue a degree or complete a higher education program need to be dedicated, determined, able to set and achieve realistic goals, prioritize, believe in themselves, sacrifice and perservere. Successful students are also self-introspective and are always looking for ways to improve themselves. If you haven’t developed all these qualities yet, don’t despair–it’s never to late to develop them.

Endowment Sweepstakes says How Tiny Houghton College Beat Harvard

The hotly competitive returns of college endowment performance are out, and the results have again shaken the higher education elite down to their Ivy League roots: The smallest endowments — those with total assets under $25 million — outperformed their billion-dollar-plus rivals for the second year.

The National Association of College and University Business Officers, known as Nacubo, and the Commonfund Institute last week released the latest results, which are, for most schools, far more important than whether they advance to the N.C.A.A. Final Four.

The 2016 fiscal year, which ended June 30, wasn’t an especially good year for anybody. But the smallest endowments outperformed the billion-plus group, losing 1 percent, on average, compared with a 1.9 percent decline for the biggest endowments.

Results were even worse for endowments of $500 million to $1 billion, which lost on average 2.2 percent

Falling behind by nearly a full percentage point has a huge impact on giant endowments like Harvard’s, which stood at $35.7 billion at the end of the fiscal year. Harvard said its investments declined by 2 percent, and its endowment total dropped by $2 billion because of the investment losses and spending. Harvard is now shaking up its endowment management.

Yale did much better than many of its peers, gaining 3.4 percent. But that still lagged the 4 percent return over the same period for the Standard & Poor’s 500-stock index and wasn’t enough to offset spending. Yale’s total endowment dropped by $200 million, to $25.4 billion.

Compare the results with those of Houghton College, a liberal arts institution affiliated with the Wesleyan Church in the Genesee Valley in western New York. Houghton has just over a thousand students and an endowment of $46.4 million.

Houghton emerged in the top quartile of all endowments, according to Nacubo, with a return of 11.85 percent for the year ended Sept. 30. (Houghton uses a different fiscal year.) For the calendar year, the results were also impressive, at 7.54 percent. Houghton has been able to lower its spending rate — the amount it withdraws each year to fund operations — to an enviable 4.5 percent, and may be able to lower it further, to 4 percent.

How did tiny Houghton do it?

The answer is pretty simple: Houghton got out of hedge funds and all alternative investments a year and a half ago, and moved the entire portfolio to a mix of low-cost index funds and mutual funds at the fund giant Vanguard.

Houghton’s endowment is now invested in a simple mix of 76 percent in stocks, evenly divided between United States and foreign, and 24 percent in fixed income, according to Vincent Morris, who joined Houghton last yearas its vice president for finance after a stint in risk management at the insurance broker Arthur J. Gallagher. Roughly half the endowment is in low-cost index funds, and the rest is in actively managed mutual funds.

Houghton’s investment committee met this week, and is likely to move even further from active management, Mr. Morris said. “I went to the University of Chicago, where I sat in a lot of investment classes,” he told me. He learned how difficult it was for active managers to outperform market averages, “especially year after year,” he said, adding, “I’m a big believer in passive investment.”

As for hedge funds and other high-cost alternatives, “the whole two-and-20 model” — in which investors typically pay 2 percent of assets under management and 20 percent of any gains — “is ridiculous,” Mr. Morris said. “The cost structure is outrageous. As they say on Wall Street, ‘Where are the customers’ yachts?’ I’m not going to play that game.”

Houghton’s experience with hedge funds predates Mr. Morris’s arrival on campus, but their performance was “mediocre at best,” he said, adding, “The investment committee and I are on the same page about moving to less active management and lower costs.”

As Houghton’s experience suggests, the past year’s disparity in results between the large and small endowments can almost entirely be explained by the differing allocations to alternative investments, especially hedge funds.

According to the association’s survey, endowments larger than $1 billion had 58 percent of their assets in alternative strategies on average, with 20 percent in hedge funds and 12 percent in private equity.

The smallest endowments — those of less than $25 million — had just 10 percent in alternatives, with 6 percent in hedge funds and a mere 1 percent in private equity.

Stung by overexposure to the troubled pharmaceutical company Valeant International, and taken by surprise by Britain’s decision to leave the European Union, hedge funds, on average, lagged far behind both the S.&P. 500 and fixed-income returns in fiscal 2016.

As a result, the performance of a simple low-cost mix of stocks and bonds, much like the portfolio Houghton assembled, has streaked past the more complex portfolios laden with hedge funds and other alternative investments.

Vanguard said a simple mix of index funds with 70 percent in equities and 30 percent in fixed-income assets delivered an annualized return of 7.1 percent over the past five years, and 6.1 percent over the past 10. For a mix of 60 percent stocks and 40 percent bonds, the returns were 6.7 percent for five years and 6.1 percent for 10.

By comparison, the annualized returns for the billion-plus endowments were 6.1 percent for five years and 5.7 percent for 10.

Hedge funds, however, have successfully marketed themselves as offering higher risk-adjusted rates of return, in part because they supposedly minimize losses in down years. But according to Vanguard’s calculations, its simple, low-cost model portfolios have provided higher returns even after adjusting for risk in eight of the past 11 years.

Most investors “would have been much better off in a low-cost, broadly diversified portfolio than in these other complex vehicles,” Christopher Philips, head of Vanguard Institutional Advisory Services, said.

Harvard reported its hedge fund portfolio lost 1.2 percent for the 2016 fiscal year. The university said it had 14 percent of its assets in “absolute return” strategies — meant to ensure that the return is always positive, rather than pegged to a benchmark — a category that includes hedge funds.

Nonetheless, in a report written by the previous chief executive of Harvard Management Company, which oversees the university’s endowment, Harvard said that “we continue to believe that partnering with best-in-class managers will lead to attractive risk-adjusted returns.”

Why Harvard would harbor such a belief after years of hedge fund underperformance remains a mystery to some.

“Supposedly the big endowments have access to better managers,” Mr. Morris said. “I may be more cynical, but I’m not sure I buy that. How do you know who the better managers are? I’m not convinced that any manager can outperform” over the long-term horizons of most endowments.

Mr. Philips of Vanguard agreed. “The ultimate challenge is picking the hedge fund managers,” he said. “There are so many, you end up seeing the same distribution of returns that you see in mutual funds except there are twice as many hedge funds.”

No major college endowment has publicly turned its back on hedge funds, as the California Public Employees’ Retirement System did in the world of pension funds in 2014. But endowment managers are closely watching to see if Harvard changes its approach now that it has brought in a new chief executive, N. P. Narvekar, who had a successful run managing Columbia University’s $9 billion endowment.

Mr. Narvekar has already shaken up the endowment’s management, saying Harvard will lay off roughly half its 230 employees by the end of the next fiscal year, including all of its internal hedge fund managers. He promised to outsource more of the endowment’s investment decisions.

Even so, no one expects Harvard — or any other major endowment — to ditch hedge funds anytime soon. Hope springs eternal, and the allure of potentially higher returns is paradoxically more potent the lower the actual returns are.

“If I put myself in the shoes of an endowment manager, I can sympathize,” Mr. Philips said. “You have to keep ahead of inflation and contribute to the operating budget at a time when return expectations are muted. So you feel compelled to reach for hedge funds or private equity in the hope you’ll outperform.”

While Vanguard hasn’t seen any stampede out of hedge funds and other alternatives among college endowments, “those hopes are starting to come up against reality,” Mr. Philips said.

Now Intel Drops Its Sponsorship of Science Fairs

The science fair has been an annual rite of education for generations of students, going back to the 1940s. But even the term “science fair” stirs stereotypical images of three-panel display boards and baking-soda volcanoes. Its regimented routines can seem stodgy at a time when young people are flocking to more freewheeling forums for scientific creativity, like software hackathons and hardware engineering Maker Faires.

That is apparently the thinking at Intel, the giant computer chip maker, which is retreating from its longtime sponsorship of science fairs for high school students.

Intel ended its support last year for the national Science Talent Search, whose new sponsor is Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, a biotechnology company.

Now, Intel will drop its backing of the International Science and Engineering Fair. The nonprofit group that organizes both fairs, the Society for Science and the Public, is beginning its search on Wednesday for a new sponsor for the global competition.

Intel’s move away from traditional science fairs leads to broader questions about how a top technology company should handle the corporate sponsorship of science, and what is the best way to promote the education of the tech work force of the future. Intel’s move also raises the issue of the role of science fairs in education in the so-called STEM fields — science, technology, engineering and mathematics.

Intel has not explained its decision, and only said it is “extremely proud” of its long association with the two fairs. The company began supporting the national fair in 1998, taking over from the original sponsor, Westinghouse, and the global competition in 1997, which had no main sponsor.

Still, Intel’s move does not suggest a pullback by tech companies in their support for sponsoring science and technology. Google, for example, hosts the Google Science Fair, a global online competition for 13-to-18-year-olds that began in 2011.

But as technology — and the economy — becomes more based on software, the major companies have broadened support to events like coding workshops and contests.

It is hard to imagine a time since the post-Sputnik years when science and technology education has been more valued, by universities and in the labor market. It is also hard to imagine that the leading international science fair, whose roster of participating countries and territories rose to 78 last year, up from 27 in 1997, will not find a deep-pocketed sponsor.

The Intel decision provoked a sharp difference of opinion between Brian Krzanich, Intel’s current chief executive, and Craig R. Barrett, a former Intel chairman and chief executive.

Mr. Krzanich has told colleagues privately that the science fairs were the fairs of the past and had become tilted to life sciences and biotechnology, not primary fields for Intel, according to two people who are not authorized to speak publicly for the company.

Mr. Barrett disagreed. In an email, he said, “you might instead conclude that Intel is a company of the past, just like Westinghouse when they dropped” sponsorship of the national science fair in 1998.

Mr. Barrett, who is on the board of the Society for Science, also said that all of science has become data-driven and computational, so Intel has a stake in nurturing youthful innovators in all scientific disciplines, including the life sciences.

Intel, under Mr. Krzanich, who became chief executive in 2013, has become a major supporter of Maker Faire events, where inventors of all ages showcase their homemade engineering projects. The first Maker Faire was in Silicon Valley in 2006. Last year, more than one million people attended Maker Faire events worldwide.

In 2013, Intel introduced Galileo, an inexpensive computer chip board, which supports open-source hardware and software for the maker and education markets. Its marketing tagline: “The Maker Movement Powered by Intel.” Mr. Krzanich has often been interviewed at Maker Faire events, and he and other Intel managers describe them as incubators for the next generation of engineers and innovators.

Intel does support other programs to promote STEM education. In 2015, the company pledged $300 million over three years for a fund to diversify its own work force by attracting more women and minorities into technology andpaying for college scholarships. Since 2001, the company has contributed an average of $45 million a year to university programs, including research collaborations and scholarships. And Intel is committed to supporting the International Science and Engineering Fair until 2019.

Maya Ajmera, president of the Society for Science, praised Intel as “an extraordinary partner for the last 20 years,” though she said the company never gave the society a reason for dropping the sponsorship.

The society is looking for a sponsor for the international competition who will commit at least $15 million annually for a minimum of five years. It is an opportunity, Ms. Ajmera said, to “invest in the most important science and technology pipeline in the world.”

The international science contest has a rich legacy. About 60 percent of the participants are American high school students, and its alumni include Paul L. Modrich, a Nobel Prize winner and biochemist at Duke University; Brian Greene, a physicist at Columbia University and a best-selling author; winners of the MacArthur Fellowship, also known as the “genius” grant; and computer scientists at companies like Apple, Google and Microsoft.

Science educators say that science fairs can nurture vital learning and life skills. Students must use critical thinking, experimentation, presentation and speaking skills, and persistence.

“Science fairs still do that in a way that all the textbook learning cannot,” said Mary Sue Coleman, a biochemist, president of the Association of American Universities and former president of the University of Michigan.

For Karan Jerath, years of high school science fairs fostered those skills. “I lacked confidence growing up and science fairs gave me that confidence,” said Mr. Jerath, 20, a sophomore at the University of Texas at Austin.

Struck by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, Mr. Jerath designed an underwater wellhead capping device for taming a gusher and separating oil, gas and water for recycling. His creation won one of the top prizes at the international fair in Pittsburgh in 2015. He has applied for a patent and he has presented his idea to groups as varied as oil companies, the United Nations and young entrepreneur programs.

His science fair success, he said, has “really opened up so many doors for me that I had never thought of.”

Samantha Marquez, 21, a junior at Yale University, won a prize in materials and bioengineering at the 2013 international competition in Phoenix. For Ms. Marquez, a lesson from her experience is that science is not solitary, isolating work, as it is often portrayed.

Winning science-fair projects, she said, typically involve consulting mentors and judges, and bouncing ideas off others. That is particularly true of the final event, where 1,800 high school students from more than 70 nations gather to compete for the top prizes. Total student participation in the global competition remains steady, according to the Society for Science.

Raymond Wang, 19, a freshman at Harvard University, thinks science fairs are “misunderstood gems of education.” But a branding makeover might be in order, he suggested. Mr. Wang, who won a top prize at the 2015 international science fair, avoids the well-known label and uses “research competitions” instead.

“The positioning of these research competitions as science fairs can be misleading,” he said.